Vision and the aging eye

Courtesy of ORBIS US on Flickr

Courtesy of ORBIS US on Flickr

Many patients reach a certain life stage and realize they need to start thinking more about their vision and preventing eye problems.  This usually happens in their early to mid-forties when people notice reading is a lot easier when there’s plenty of light and the print is held further away.  Those who have seen an eye care provider for this problem should have already discovered that this is a normal aging process.  But how does one know when vision changes are normal or should be concerning?

Eye conditions that impact vision:

  • Presbyopia is the medical term for when the focusing muscles in the eye are not as flexible, causing poor focusing ability for objects nearby.  This typically occurs in the late thirties/early forties and is easily corrected with reading glasses or bifocal or progressive lenses.
  • Cataracts begin to develop in our forties and progress over time.  There is a natural clear crystalline lens in our eye which focuses light onto our retina.  With ultraviolet ray exposure, this lens can become more opaque and yellow over time, causing a dimming of vision and glare and haloes around lights.  The best way to prevent cataracts from progressing quickly is to protect the eyes with UV-blocking sunglasses anytime you are outdoors.  The good news about cataracts is that they can be easily removed and replaced with an artificial lens implant.  With the latest technology of intraocular lens implants such as muiltifocal lenses, patients are now able to see clearly at all distances without the use of glasses or reading glasses.
  • Glaucoma is a symptomless eye disease of the optic nerve head where the nerve slowly deteriorates over time.  Most patients who develop glaucoma will not have any symptoms until the late stages of the disease, when peripheral vision deteriorates and patients are left with tunnel vision.  There is no cure or preventative measure for glaucoma, however, it is easily treated with eyedrops.  The only way to determine if you have glaucoma is to have annual comprehensive eye examinations.

    Courtesy of Nargopolis on Flickr

    Courtesy of Nargopolis on Flickr

  • Macular Degeneration is another common eye disease that can cause debilitating vision loss.  This occurs when the macular region of the retina loses its integrity causing poor central vision with distortion or gray spots.  It is often detected upon routine examination, especially when photos of the retina are compared over time.  Fortunately, there have been extensive studies on macular degeneration and the field has changed dramatically over the last several years.  An important test in recent years is genetic testing to determine one’s risk factor for vision loss as a result of macular degeneration, as well as antioxidants that may be useful in reducing this risk.  Clear risk factors include a history of smoking, exposure to ultraviolet radiation, increased cholesterol levels and Caucasian women with lighter eyes and fairer complexions.
  • Retinal Detachment tends to occur more often in those who are older than 65.  The retina is a thin and fragile tissue that lines the back wall of the eye and sends visual information to the brain.  This tissue becomes more fragile over time and can easily develop a hole or tear leading to a retinal detachment.  If you experience flashes of light, new floaters, or a change in your vision, you need to be seen right away by your eyecare provider.

There are a myriad of eye conditions that can develop as one ages.  The most important and useful method of preventing vision loss is to stay healthy.  See your primary care physician regularly to evaluate and treat high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes and other health conditions.  If you have uncontrolled health conditions, you can easily lose your vision to diabetic retinopathy, hypertensive retinopathy, or a stroke in the eye.

So, as I tell all my patients, see your physician regularly, eat green leafy vegetables, take your medications, and monitor your own blood pressure or blood sugar.  And of course, wear sunglasses outdoors and see your optometrist annually.

~Cindy P. Wang, OD, FAAO
California Optometric Association
http://www.coavision.org

Getting children ready to go back to school

Summer seems to have just started, but the new school year is only a month away. Many of us get ready for this time by making sure our kids have the right clothes, books and school supplies to start the year off right, but we forget to make sure that our kid’s eyes are working well so that learning in school is easy, comfortable, and fun!

The back to school season is a great time to schedule your child’s eye health and vision exam. Optometrists are able to make sure that not only is your child seeing as clear  as possible, but that all of their other visual skills are working properly to handle the demands of the new school year.

"Reading is Fun" Photo Courtesy of John-Morgan on Flickr

“Reading is Fun” Photo Courtesy of John-Morgan on Flickr

The following are some of the important visual skills necessary for learning in the classroom:

  • Visual acuity — The ability to see clearly at any distance. Seeing 20/20 is only one portion of all of the visual skills necessary for classroom success, but sometimes the only area that is assessed by typical “vision screenings.”
  • Eye Tracking — The ability to follow with the eyes a slow moving object such as the teacher moving around the front of the classroom and the ability for the eyes to follow along a line of print while reading without skipping or re-reading
  • Focusing Flexibility- the eyes ability to maintain focus on objects in the distance and at near as well as shift focus quickly from point to point.
  • Eye teaming — The skill needed to aim both eyes together at the same time.  This is a needed skill for lining the eyes up while reading across of page of print and also to have the very high level of depth perception needed for sports.
  • Eye-hand coordination — The skill needed to coordinate the visual system and the motor system when writing, copying, or playing sports.
  • Visual perception — The skill needed to sort, understand and remember information that is coming into the visual system.

Making sure all of these areas are working at the highest level will help ensure that your child has a successful school year.

~By Lisa Weiss, OD, FAAO